Sunday, August 2, 2020

How Psychologists Define Attention

How Psychologists Define Attention Theories Cognitive Psychology Print How Psychologists Define Attention By Kendra Cherry facebook twitter Kendra Cherry, MS, is an author, educational consultant, and speaker focused on helping students learn about psychology. Learn about our editorial policy Kendra Cherry Medically reviewed by Medically reviewed by Steven Gans, MD on January 17, 2016 Steven Gans, MD is board-certified in psychiatry and is an active supervisor, teacher, and mentor at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn about our Medical Review Board Steven Gans, MD Updated on April 25, 2019 Plume Creative / Digital Vision / Getty Images More in Theories Cognitive Psychology Behavioral Psychology Developmental Psychology Personality Psychology Social Psychology Biological Psychology Psychosocial Psychology Attention is a concept studied in cognitive psychology that refers to how we actively process specific information in our environment. As you are reading this, there are numerous sights, sounds, and sensations going on around youâ€"the pressure of your feet against the floor, the sight of the street out of a nearby window, the soft warmth of your shirt, the memory of a conversation you had earlier with a friend. All of these sights, sounds, and sensations vie for our attention, but it turns out that our attentional resources are not limitless. How do we manage to experience all of these sensations and still focus on just one element of our environment? How do we effectively manage the resources we have available in order to make sense of the world around us? Attention as Defined by Philosopher William James According to eminent psychologist and philosopher William James, attention is the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what may seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. …It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others.â€"The Principles of Psychology, 1890?? Understanding Attention Think of attention as a highlighter. As you read through a section of text in a book, the highlighted section stands out, causing you to focus your interest in that area. But attention is not just about centering your focus on one particular thing; it also involves ignoring a great deal of competing for information and stimuli. Attention allows you to tune out information, sensations, and perceptions that are not relevant at the moment and instead focus your energy on the information thats important.? Not only does our attentional system allow us to focus on something specific in our environment while tuning out irrelevant details, but it also affects our perception of the stimuli surrounding us. In some cases, our attention might be focused on a particular thing, causing us to ignore other things. In some instances, focusing our attention on a primary target might result in not perceiving the second target at all. In other words, by focusing our attention on something in the environment, we sometimes miss other things that are right in front of us. You can probably immediately think of a situation where you were so focused on a task that you neglected to notice someone walking in the room or talking to you. Since your attentional resources were so focused on one thing, you neglected something else. Key Points About Attention In order to understand how attention works and how it affects your perception and experience of the world, its essential to remember a few important points about how attention works, including: Attention is limited. There has been a tremendous amount of research looking at exactly how many things we can attend to and for how long. Key variables that impact our ability to stay on task include how interested we are in the stimulus and how many distractors we experience and attention is limited in terms of both capacity and duration. The illusion that attention is limitless has led many people to practice multitasking. Research published in 2018 has pointed out how multitasking seldom works well because our attention is, in reality, limited.??Attention is selective.  Since attention is a limited resource, we have to be selective about what we decide to focus on. Not only must we focus our attention on a specific item in our environment, but we must also filter out an enormous number of other items. We must be selective in what we attend to, a process that often occurs so quickly that we dont even notice that we have ignored certain stimuli in favor of others.Attention is a bas ic part of the cognitive system.  Attention is a basic component of our biology, present even at birth. Our orienting reflexes help us determine which events in our environment need to be attended to, a process that aids in our ability to survive. Newborns attend to environmental stimuli such as loud noises. A touch against the cheek triggers the rooting reflex, causing the infant to turn his or her head to nurse and receive nourishment. These orienting reflexes continue to benefit us throughout life. The honk of a horn might alert us about an oncoming car. The blaring noise of a smoke alarm might warn you that the casserole you put in the oven is burning. All of these stimuli grab our attention and inspire us to respond to our environment. Attention Research for Greater Understanding of ADHD For the most part, our ability to focus our attention on one thing while blocking out competing distractors seems automatic. Yet the ability of people to selectively focus their attention on a specific subject while dismissing others is very complex. Looking at attention in this way isnt just academic. Research published in 2017 says that neural circuitry (pathways in the brain) related to attention are intricately related to conditions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and achieving a greater understanding of this process holds promise for better treatments for those coping with this condition down the line.??

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Analysis Of 12 Angry Men And Groupthink - 1519 Words

12 Angry Men and Groupthink The movie â€Å"12 Angry Men,† is one that begins with a judge talking about the circumstances that surround a murder trial where a judge sends the jury off to deliberate on their verdict. Throughout the movie the twelve men struggle between deciding if the defendant if guilty or not guilty for the crime of murdering his own father. If found guilty, the young boy will be sentenced to death. The twelve men spend their time in a hot room debating if this boy is truly guilty or innocent. It is during this time that the viewer can see persuasion, conformity, prejudice, cognitive heuristics, and group polarization. All of which will be discussed throughout the paper as a way to analyze the movie and how it relates to†¦show more content†¦Then halfway through the movie, juror number seven then changes his vote from guilty to not guilty because he was tired and had things to do. He said this after the non-guilty verdicts went from one to seven (Fo nda, Justin, Rose, Lumet, 1957). This also shows groupthink the reason why is that some men like the one that said pass, and the one that changed his vote because he had things to do casted their vote in accordance with the others in the group. This shows how in groups the tendency to be concerned with group solidarity is more important than to critically and realistically evaluate decisions and assumptions (Won-Woo, 1990). The two men had decided their verdict because of others and their decisions as opposed to the evidence and their own personal belief. Authority was used when juror number eight who said not guilty from the beginning went through each piece of evidence proving the boys innocence. Through each bit of evidence that he disproves the other jurors then they begin to see him as credible and switch their vote where he then becomes the majority influence. Prejudice was commonly seen throughout the film where some of the jurors showed discrimination when it came to the d efendant. Specifically juror ten was racially biased, he described the defendant as a slum dweller and that they are criminals (Evirgen, 2009). Juror number ten obscured his own truth of his personal life by sayingShow MoreRelated12 Angry Men Groupthink Analysis724 Words   |  3 Pages12 Angry Men and Groupthink In 12 Angry Men, jurors determined if a young, poor Puerto Rican man murdered his father. Initially, eleven of the men determined that the defendant was guilty of murder; however, one juror held that the defendant was innocent, and he believed the man deserved a chance at being proven innocent. After intense debate, the jury found the defendant not guilty. Even though this movie shows evidence of prejudice, groupthink, conformity, cognitive heuristics, the catalyst ofRead MoreEssay about The Problem of Groupthink in 12 Angry Men934 Words   |  4 PagesThe term groupthink in this report is defined as, the social psychological phenomenon that results in groups during pressure situations. This social psychology theory is broken down into eight signs. Illusion of invulnerability, Collective rationalization, Belief in inherent morality, Stereotyped views of out-groups, Direct pressure on dissenters, Self-censorship, Illusion of unanimity, Self-appointed â€Å"mindguards†. Accord ing to research conducted by Irving Janis, there are three conditions to groupthinkRead MoreGroup Decision-Making, Leadership, Influence and Power: Illustrations from the Film â€Å"12 Angry Men†1703 Words   |  7 PagesThe film â€Å"12 Angry Men (1957)† present a diverse group of twelve American jurors brought together to decide the guilt or innocence of a teenaged defendant in a seemingly open-and-shut murder trial case. The film illustrates the advantages and disadvantages of group decision-making, group developmental stages, leadership personality and models, social influence tactics and outcomes, and the bases of social power. The following advantages of group decision-making were demonstrated in this approximatelyRead MoreMovie 12 Angry By Movie Review1137 Words   |  5 PagesIn this essay I will be an analysis of group communication using the movie 12 Angry Men.The movie 12 Angry men is a movie about a jury made up of 12 men as they deliberate the guilt or acquittal of a defendant on the basis of reasonable doubt. They go through many different problems during the deliberation. The movie starts off with all 12 of the jurors in a room. Nobody knows anybody. Everyone friendly introducing themselves and making conversation. Trying to get to know one another. They knew theyRead MoreConformity - Social Psychology4828 Words   |  20 Pageslegal system, and what challenges are posed in these roles? Using the film, 12 Angry Men as your basis, discuss the two most significant illustrations of social psychology in the film. Finally, how can psychological findings be applied to improve the legal system, and what effect should these findings have on the legal process? There are few examples of group dynamics as complete and realistic as the film Twelve Angry Men. This film was not only entertaining, but it also serves as a great exampleRead MoreManaging for the Future Organizational Behavior Processes7280 Words   |  30 Pagesyour custom Ancona textbook: Check Module Order Here to Module in Text PRICE Select (Place numbers in box) Module 1 The New Organization: Taking Action in an Era of Organizational Transformation $7.00 Module 2 Three Lenses on Organizational Analysis and Action $7.00 Module 3 Making Teams Work $7.00 Module 4 Diverse Cognitive Styles in Teams $7.00 Module 5 Team Processes $7.00 Module 6 Teams in Organizations $7.00 Module 7 Workforce Management: Employment Relationships in Changing OrganizationsRead MoreSociology and Group41984 Words   |  168 Pagese. 966 Answer: e. 966 . What is the ideal group size for a problem-solving discussion? a. 3–5 people b. 4–6 people c. 5–7 people d. 6–9 people e. 8–12 people Answer: c. 5–7 people . According to your textbook, the most important factor separating successful groups from unsuccessful ones is a. having a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 12 members in a group. b. a clear goal. c. strong leadership. d. member independence and interdependence. e. group morale. Answer: b. a clear goal. Read MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 PagesManager, Production: Lisa Rinaldi Full-Service Project Management: Christian Holdener, S4Carlisle Publishing Services Composition: S4Carlisle Publishing Services Printer/Binder: Courier/Kendallville Cover Printer: Courier/Kendalville Text Font: 10.5/12 ITC New Baskerville Std Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on the appropriate page within text. Copyright  © 2013, 2011, 2009, 2007, 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc., publishingRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesCover Design: Suzanne Duda Lead Media Project Manager: Denise Vaughn Full-Service Project Management: Sharon Anderson/BookMasters, Inc. Composition: Integra Software Services Printer/Binder: Edwards Brothers Cover Printer: Coral Graphics Text Font: 10/12 Weidemann-Book Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text. Copyright  © 2011, 2007, 2005, 2002, 1998 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as PrenticeRead MoreProject Mgmt296381 Words   |  1186 PagesLeadership Chapter 2 Organization Strategy and Project Selection 1.4 Projects and programs (.2) 1.4.1 Managing the portfolio 1.4.3 Strategy and projects 2.3 Stakeholders and review boards 12.1 RFP’s and vendor selection (.3.4.5) 11.2.2.6 SWAT analysis 6.5.2.7 Schedule compression 9.4.2.5 Leadership skills G.1 Project leadership 10.1 Stakeholder management Chapter 11 Teams Chapter 3 Organization: Structure and Culture 2.4.1 Organization cultures [G.7] 2.4.2 Organization structure

Monday, May 11, 2020

Autobiographical Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1265 Downloads: 2 Date added: 2017/09/22 Category Advertising Essay Type Argumentative essay Tags: Autobiography Essay Friends Essay Did you like this example? nisha rameen H Fleming Freshmen English 30 November 2006 The day I changed myself It was sunny afternoon in the middle of the summer. I was reading a book. Then my mother called me and told that, I and my family are moving from our country. My calm mind sudden changed in temper mind. I was shocked. Was I hearing something wrong? That came to my mind first. Because I could not imagine that she can tell me such matter in such an easy mood. But what I heard and what expression I see in my mother’s face was completely right. That incident came like a storm and floated everything with it. I lived in Bangladesh. For fourteen years Bangladesh had been my home. Everyone loves their country, but when they leave their country then they understand what their country, their language, their culture is. A country is like man’s shelter. Everyone is well-known about their environment, but when one goes to another country, they understand that no one is familiar to him. That is exactly my case. By attending a public school with one thousand students from preschool through grade eight I grew up with the same friends and classmates in each grade since the age of five. We know each other so well that we were like family, and I blossomed in this sheltered environment. This sheltered environment was shattered on the 22nd July 2008 when my family received a large, white, official envelope with the seal of United States of America. After hearing that news from my mother’s mouth, my mind was full of questions. All questions are initially run through my emotional mind and my parents are refused to answer my questions. How could they force such a change in my life and ignore my questions? My parents were being cruel, not because they were making move but because they were completely ignoring my feelings and questions. My opinions and feelings meant nothing to them because they made the choice on their own. I ran to my room and shut the door. What I h eard just five minutes ago, my mother’s voice was chanting those words beside me. During which time I could absorb the fact that I was just going to left my friends, my country, and my home. And I could quite possibly never see Bangladesh again. Not because I wanted to, but because my parents had not given me any choice. I was torn between sadness at going to leave my whole life behind and a feeling of anxiety at starting a new life in an unknown world. After the first push of that incident I settle down and called my best friend who always supported me in my worse times. I told him the full matter. I shouted, I cried and asked him that, what I did that; god is giving me that type of punishment. He had no word to console me except listen to me. He listen the full matter quietly. I was so emotional that time, I just became teenager. For a teenager it was the largest pain. It was more than I could accept in my little mind. My mind is hoping that this was simply an unpleas ant dream or a nightmare. But this imagination felt like a hard slap in my face. This is not happening that came to mind then. To go another country or stay another country it would depend on my parent’s decision. Whatever they decide that will happen in my life. My life is in their hand. That night, fighting to hold the tears in my eyes, I lied restlessly in my bed with a cold blanket hiding my face and looking over the window to see the night beauty of my country, who can tell that; can I see these beauties may two or three days more. The next day I woke up to look outside the window. I was depressed. I was not on the state of anything listening or anything seeing. I went in front of my house. One year age I made a garden in front of my house. It was the most favorite place of mine whenever I get upset I used to come here and the breeze of the garden take away the sadness from me. It is pleasant and beautiful surrounding of my garden. It is quite, it is sets the mood tha t I want to think about anything, like about my life. The beautiful white and red roses used to say hi to me. Every day I also wish them back but that day my mind was not in the Earth it went somewhere else. I was thinking that, my moving from country is like my garden. I created my garden to give all my effort in this land and I created a little world beside me in my country and now someone is telling me that I had to leave my little world, like take away all your trees and find different land for your garden. I had to torn all my bonding. I had to leave everything I create. Then the day came, 25 July2008. Our flight was at night 1:52am. We said bye to our relatives and friends. And then we fly in the sky. My mind was stacked by questions. My eyes are red because of shedding tears past two days. I was feeling that time, that we flying and this flight will taking me far away from my country. Such a country, I do not have any idea how it is look like. I was going to face a larg est challenge of finding new friends, adapting to a new school system and a whole new different culture. Whole forty-eight hours flight was lay ahead of me and my mind was full of imaginations. My first step of United States of America was 28 July2008. With many sacred feelings from my country, put it in heart I started my life in America. It was hard, hurting and full of pain. I could not remember any smile, I smiled from my heart. When I smiled, it was only for my parents and to show them that I am happy in America. My body is here but my soul is not here. My soul is in my country, where one year ago a jolly teenager laughs from her heart and talks with hopes with full heart of hopes. When I see my face in the mirror, sometimes I asked myself that; is that me? I changed so strangely, that sometimes it is difficult to know me for me. What I was and what I am now. But is these want my parents for me that changing fully or they want something else. I still do not know what the rea son was behind to leave our country. Is it for better future for us or only for our parent’s ambitious mind? I don’t know or maybe I am not mature enough to understand the fact of left our country or it can be happen also that, I should never know that reason. That incident snatched everything from me like a sudden storm. Moved to America changed my whole life. This is my fate. I cannot do anything against my fate. Some says; â€Å"man proposes but god disposes† it can be true but I personally feel that, â€Å"life is what we make it† so I won’t give up. I have to keep patience. Maybe the day is not far when I will go back to my country. Don’t waste time! 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Night Creature Dark Moon Chapter Four Free Essays

The force of the explosion sent us both to the ground. Through some acrobatic maneuver, Nic managed to cover my body with his. Debris rained everywhere. We will write a custom essay sample on Night Creature: Dark Moon Chapter Four or any similar topic only for you Order Now My ears rang. I thought I’d gone deaf until I realized the wolves were howling right next to my head. Nic eased off me. â€Å"What was that?† I sat up, staring at the flaming compound. â€Å"My guess is a really big bomb.† â€Å"Bomb?† He leaped to his feet. â€Å"What makes you think a bomb?† â€Å"You’re the hotshot FBI agent. What does that look like to you?† â€Å"Gas explosion?† â€Å"If we had any gas out here. Electricity fired this place. And last time I checked, electricity doesn’t cause fiery, explosive death.† He peered at his suddenly dirty shoes for several ticks of the clock, then offered me a hand. â€Å"You’re right.† Since touching him was a stupid idea and kissing him had been an even worse one, I got up on my own. When I touched people, bad things happened. I contemplated the heat and the flames. Really bad things. The building was little more than a flaming crater. The guard was dead. I wasn’t sure about the werewolves in the basement. Burning the bodies after they’d been shot with silver left ashes, but would a firebomb kill a werewolf? I didn’t have a clue. A chill came over me that had nothing to do with the wind. What if Billy were alive? I swayed and almost fell. What if he were alive and free? Nic, who’d been creeping closer to the blaze, hurried to my side and clutched my elbow. â€Å"Are you dizzy?† I closed my eyes on another cheery thought. Not only did I have to worry about Billy, but my notes, my serum, the antidote were gone. â€Å"Elise, you’d better sit down again.† I shook Nic off, took a deep breath, let it out slowly, then took another. â€Å"My work,† I managed. â€Å"Everything was inside.† He blinked, glanced at the compound, then at me. â€Å"You must have it backed up off-site.† True. However, I didn’t know where that somewhere was. Only Edward did, and he was in Wisconsin. â€Å"You don’t?† Nic’s voice was incredulous. â€Å"Yes, of course. But there were things in there I’m going to need.† I glanced at the sky, contemplating the lopsided, three-quarter moon. Soon. Nic patted his pocket, and a bewildered expression crossed his face, followed almost immediately by a dawning understanding. â€Å"Left my cell in the car.† Dazed, I followed him around the crackling building to the front parking lot. He stopped walking, and I ran into his back. â€Å"Uh-oh,† he muttered. Leaning to the side, I saw the problem. The cars were on fire, too. â€Å"I guess that makes sense,† Nic said, almost to himself. â€Å"This kind of damage, usually a car bomb.† I guess he should know. â€Å"How many vehicles were supposed to be in this lot?† he asked. I glanced at the piles of fiery metal and counted. â€Å"One less than we’ve got.† His lips tightened. â€Å"Doesn’t really tell us all that much, but I can get someone here who can. Got a phone?† â€Å"In my office.† â€Å"Great.† He scrubbed his fingers through his hair, leaving a few strands standing on end. If he hadn’t been six-three and about two-twenty, he would have looked like a little boy with cowlicks. As it was, I found myself charmed far beyond what was good for me. â€Å"This makes no sense,† he continued. â€Å"Why would anyone want to blow up a medical research facility?† Since we were a lot more than that, there were quite a few people, and nonpeople, too, who would love to blow J-S headquarters to hell and gone. Not just the building, either, but me, Edward, and any other agents they could take out in the process. We didn’t need the FBI here. Lord knows what else they might uncover when they started sifting through the rubble. If I could get to a phone ahead of Nic, Edward would take care of the cover-up. A cool wind sifted through the trees, bringing with it the scent of winter. We’d been lucky so far; it was November and we’d only had a dusting of snow. I glanced to the west where dark clouds billowed on the horizon. That was about to change. Something cracked and fell inside the smouldering crater, the sound echoing through the forest. A wolf yipped, beyond the fence, not one of mine, and I started to get nervous about being in the open without a gun. â€Å"Where’s the nearest town?† Nic asked. â€Å"Sixty miles, give or take.† His stare was blank. He couldn’t get his mind around the concept. â€Å"Where do you live?† I pointed to the flames. â€Å"You live and work here?† â€Å"There isn’t anywhere else.† Besides, I worked all the time. Why bother to rent elsewhere, even if it was safe to do so? Sure, sometimes I left the compound, even the state, on special orders from Edward. But once those orders were completed, I hurried back and disappeared once more behind the locked doors. â€Å"What about groceries, clothes†¦ ?† He spread his big hands wide. â€Å"Stuff and junk?† â€Å"Supplies arrive twice a month.† He opened his mouth, then shut it again, and his eyes narrowed. â€Å"There’s more to this place than medical research, isn’t there?† I didn’t answer. In the end, I didn’t have to. A shadow scooted behind a tree at the edge of the parking lot. I turned that way, wishing like hell I’d brought my gun. Nic had one, but without silver bullets it wouldn’t do much good against most of the things that were after me. Still†¦ I reached for Nic’s arm, planning to ask for his weapon, or at least tell him to pull it out, and the shadow shimmered, almost taking form, before blending into the half-darkness once again. Curious, I let my hand drop and took a step toward the trees. A sound came from the woods, one I’d heard only a few times before. However, when dealing with gunshots, once is more than enough. I yanked Nic with me to the ground. The bullet whistled through the air where our heads had been, then thunked into something solid on the other side of the parking lot. I glanced at Nic. He had a Glock in his hand, and I hadn’t even seen him move. Impressive. â€Å"Where did that come from?† he asked. â€Å"There.† I pointed to the tree where I could have sworn I saw the shape of a human being – except in my world, they might not be human anymore. If Billy was alive, he wouldn’t bother with a gun. He had so many better weapons in his arsenal. Besides, Billy was the kind of guy who liked to get his hands, as well as his fangs, dirty. Nic made a move to get up, and I pulled him down. â€Å"I don’t think so.† â€Å"I’m not going to be a sitting duck. I’ve got a gun, too.† Which wouldn’t do him a bit of good when shooting at a werewolf. The conundrum made me hesitate long enough for Nic to slip out of my reach. Instead of running into the woods, he stared at me with narrowed eyes. â€Å"Who did you piss off, Elise?† â€Å"Me? Who says they weren’t trying to kill you?† His eyes widened. Guess he hadn’t thought of that. Nic lifted the leg of his slacks and handed me a .38 from the ankle holster. â€Å"I’ll be right back.† He headed into the forest. When no shots were fired, I concluded that whoever had been there was gone. I inched across the parking lot, avoiding the burning piles of metal that had once been cars. Gauging the trajectory from the tree where I’d seen the shadowy figure, to the area where we’d been standing, then beyond, I was able to find the bullet embedded in a smoldering signpost. The spent ammo looked like any other. However, my fingers burned the instant I brought them close to the bullet. The reaction could have been from the continuing heat of the fire, except it wasn’t. The bullet was silver. â€Å"Huh,† I murmured as I drew back my hand. â€Å"Guess they were after me.† How to cite Night Creature: Dark Moon Chapter Four, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Matthew Funk Essays - Regions Of The Czech Republic,

Matthew Funk Block 2 Geography Report 1-5-99 Location: Absolute: The center of the country of Czech Republic is located at 50 degrees North and 16 degrees East. Relative: The Czech Republic is in the North-Eastern Hemisphere. It is also located on the continent of Asia. The Czech Republic is in the geographic center of Europe. The country also shares borders with four other countries (Poland, Germany, Austria, and Solvakia). The Czech territory is placed between two principal mountain systems in Europe, The Hercynian and Alpine-Himalayan. Place: Physical: The Czech Republic has four major mountain ranges, 3 of them are protected by the country. Krkonose (Giant Mountains) This range stretches 40 kilometers into Bohemian territory, thus creating a natural border between itself and Poland, and is also the Czech Republic's highest mountain range. The highest peak is Mt. Snezka. Several of the other peaks reach elevations of over 1,500 meters. This range was proclaimed a national park in 1963. Hruby Jesenik (Ash Mountains) This range is the second highest of the ranges, and is located in northern Moravia. The highest peak in this range is called Praded Peak, and is 1,491 meters high. This range is also protected and has been since 1969. Sumava (Bohemian Forest) This is the third highest range in the Czech Republic, the highest point in this range is Plechy Peak (1,373 meters above sea level). This range extends 125 kilometers into Bohemia from the border, thus creating a natural border with Germany. This range is also protected by the Czech Republic, and has been since 1962. It also was declared a national park in 1991. The end of the range that sticks into Germany is also protected. Beskydy This range is located in the eastern part of the Czech Republic in northern Moravia. The highest point is 1,000 meters above sea level. It's terrain is rolling hillsides, forests, and pastures. This terrain is ideal for hiking, camping, skiing. The Czech Republic lies in the temperate climate zone of Europe, which makes pleasantly mild summers and winters with only moderate amounts of precipitation. The lowlands temperature average in July is 20 degrees Celsius and in the mountains is 10 degrees Celsius. The lowland temperature average in January is -1 degrees Celsius and in the mountains is -6 degrees Celsius. The Czech Republic has many different kinds of vegetation. Spruce and fir trees are most common in the republic's forests, particularly at higher elevations, while mixed forests of oak, ash, and maple are characteristic in lower zones. The uncultivated lowlands are covered mostly with clover, reeds, and broom grass. Human: In 1997, the Czech Republic had a total population of 10.3 million people, five million males and 5.3 million females. Three quarters of the people live in urban areas. The population density is 131 inhabitants per sq. kilometer, while the total growth in population in the Czech Republic is 0.8 persons per 1,000 inhabitants. The capital, Prague, has a population of 1,213,800 people. Until 1994, an outstanding feature of the Czech Republic was its stable population growth, with the exception of the two world wars. Since 1994, however, the population has been decreasing and is expected to have fallen to around 10 million in the year 2020. After World War II, the number of births fell from over 200,000 a year to less than 150,000 in 1970. In 1974 this figure had increased to 195,000 but by 1996 had fallen gradually to 90,000. The number of new born babies per 1,000 inhabitants was 8.8 % in 1996. The number of deaths per 1,000 inhabitants gradually increased from World War II until 1983 (13.0%). Since then it has decreased and in 1996 it was only 10.9 %, thus corresponding to western European levels Thanks to its long rich history and the diversity of its natural environment, the Czech Republic is a great attraction to the millions of guests who visit it each year. The jewel in the Czech crown is Prague with its gorgeous and rich architectural styles but the country is also dotted with numerous historical city centers, castles, and chateaux. Outside the urban areas, deep woods, rock formations and limestone caves are among the many interesting sites the Czech Republic has to offer. Since the Czech lands lie exactly on the border of Eastern and Western Europe, the country has come under the influence of several different cultures throughout the course of history. Each of these influences indelibly marked the face of the country with the architectural or artistic monuments. This accounts for

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Pearl Harbor vs. WTC essays

Pearl Harbor vs. WTC essays Chaz Morantz October, 2001 The Effects of Pearl Harbor and the WTC Attack In our history, there have been many conflicts between nations and within nations based upon ethnic and religious background. Entire wars have been fought based upon one race feeling superior to another. But this kind of ethnic persecution and racial conflict is the base factor for why our planet is in such a state of constant conflicts. True world peace will never be achieved until we accept each other for who we are. Two events in recent history seem to stand out when it comes to looking at how people react to different ethnic groups when a conflict arises. The first even was a surprise attack by the Japanese on our naval fleet at Pearl Harbor during World War II. The second is a recent attack on the World Trade Center buildings and the pentagon by Middle-Eastern terrorists who highjacked commercial airliners and then flew them into the targets. These devastating events have brought out harsh feelings towards the ethnic groups that the terrorists and bombers belonged to. It is a judge of our character, as citizens of a powerful nation, how we react to the people in our nation who had nothing to do with these events, but physically resemble the attackers. After Pearl Harbor, the government and people of the US feared that the current Japanese Americans could be spies and would help Japan in further attacks. Our shock and surprise over the destruction that was rendered at Pearl Harbor drove us temporarily to put aside our constitutional morals and national beliefs. In a quick reaction, President Roosevelt signed and executive order to round up all the Japanese-Americans in the US and intern, or relocate, them into detention camps. These camps were had very poor living conditions and no indoor plumbing or central heating. Many Japanese became ill and some even died. When they came to the camps, the Japanese were usually forced t ...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Face It Writers Make Less Now

Face It Writers Make Less Now If you are in this business full-time, and attempt to keep up with the pace of the current publishing paradigm, you cant help but feel depressed. Writers make less now than a decade ago. And no, it does not appear to be a temporary slump. Writers in Canada make less than in 1998 thestar.com/entertainment/books/2015/05/29/writers-in-canada-make-less-than-in-1998.html Authors incomes collapse to abject levels theguardian.com/books/2014/jul/08/authors-incomes-collapse-alcs-survey We can argue the reasons why, but I see it as two-fold: Treasure in hand 1) Everybody can publish today. 2) Readers have become accustomed to deals, so the average cost of a book has seriously declined. Nobody pays $25 for a hardback anymore. Not when a reader can grab an ebook for $1.99. But writers tend to be their own worst enemy. It feels better to sell 1,000 books for $.99 each than 100 for $9.99. We think were more powerful at that 1,000 number, but what weve failed to see is that weve driven our reputation down to a level thats hard to recover from. Yes, I understand you can have one-day and two-day offers. I understand Kindle Unlimited and Kindle Countdown Deals attract lower priced sales. But with most writers pricing down their material, we all earn less. And with so many writers in the mix, we all sell less. My own publisher talks about how publishers across the board are earning less, which drives them to promote individual authors less, no longer provide print ARCs, and decrease advances. On the freelance front, $1/word was once the professional rate. When FundsforWriters was started, I scolded writers for accepting less than 20 cents/word. Today thats decent pay. Writing mills came into the picture, making new writers think they could gather experience doing click rate writing. Then people started writing internationally, and writers from some countries easily underbid writers in others. One So whats an author to do? 1) Write steadily and often. The prolific writers makes more money no matter the pay. 2) Stand firm for a respectable wage. Turn down bad offers. Set your floor. 3) Dont settle for a lesser publisher. Hold out for a reputable publisher or learn to self-publish and consider making your own success. 4) Be unique in your promotion. Do not use the mass promo offers everyone else uses. 5) Promote daily, a little at a time, but dont sound like the next guy. The slow-but-sure mentality wins this race, and its a darn marathon for sure. But there are sneakers and training programs for those marathons, and they await you. You just have to decide to put them on.